ALS and Archaeology.
Basic Processing and Classification.
Popular 2D visualizations of bare earth DTMs in archaeology include:
- -Classic Hillshades
- -Multi-Directional Hillshades
- -Slope Maps
- -Sky View Factor
- -PCA of multiple Hillshades
Simultaneous viewing of the point cloud, in profile or as a 3D model, alongside the shaded terrain model is common practice. The combined information from multiple views of the same data helps interpreters to understand if a small bump is likely to be a potentially archaeological mound, or built up soil around the base of a particularly large tree, not fully removed by the filtering process.
Metadata about Visualizations.
- -data scanning: scanner type, scanning density, density of a combined dataset, scanning date;
- -data processing: method(s) used, parameter settings, description of the processing goal (e.g. producing a terrain model, removing just the vegetation), elevation model resolution;
- -visualization: method(s) used, parameter settings (e.g. hillshading (Sun elevation and azimuth), LRM (method, distance), SVF (distance, directions);
- -interpretation process: reliability of the results (qualitative if quantitative evaluation is not possible, e.g. low to high, description of each class is recommended).
Analyses Using lidar DTMs.
- -Visibility Studies
- -Predictive Modeling
- -Least Cost Path and Cost Surface Modeling
- -Erosion Assessments
The ArchaeoLandscapes Project is an EU based project promoting the use of remote sensing and surveying technologies in archaeology. Their website is an excellent resource for both general information and case studies about the use of ALS in archaeology.
The English Heritage Guide to Airborne Laser Scanning provides good information on the use of ALS in the context of a national cultural heritage management organization.